It also disappointed many exiles by accepting the restoration of Catholicism as the dominant religion in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, strongholds of Protestantism in 1618. Chronic financial weakness meant prior to 1619 the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. The causes of the Thirty Years War in Western Europe: By 1600, two camps had emerged in western Europe: France and the United Provinces The House of Habsburg (Spain and Austria) Phillip III of Spain attempted to continue the foreign policy aspirations of his father, Phillip II, which essentially meant that Spain had to be … Thirty Years' War is a game designed by HQ and it covers one of the darkest ages of European history. , Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere.  Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war can be seen in the changes that were made to European society. Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. "Thirty Years War" recreates this conflict with the award winning wargame system used in GMT's Wilderness War, Paths of Glory, and For the People. , After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. The Thirty Years' War was one of the bloodiest events in European history — deadlier than the Black Death and World War II, in terms of the proportion of the population lost. These diaries can be viewed (in German) at: This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 12:08. In Lorraine, the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, occupied by France since 1552, were formally ceded, as were the cities of the Décapole in Alsace, with the exception of Strasbourg and Mulhouse. This threatened other Protestant rulers within the Empire, including Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein. 30 YEARS WAR is the soundtrack of a bloody grinding train wreck. It entered the war against the emperor and against Spain on the side of Protestant allies. , After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. They offered the Crown to the Protestant Frederick V of the Palatinate, who accepted. WHERE? Meanwhile, Royalists and Pariamentarians fought for control of the nation in the English Civil War. Frederick and the remnants of Mansfeld's army took refuge in the Dutch Republic. Intended as the basis of a wider coalition against Ferdinand, France, Sweden, Savoy and the Republic of Venice were also invited to join, but it was overtaken by events. , Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. The war originated in differences between German Protestants and Catholics, which were temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg but was gradually undermined by political and religious tensions.  Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch. For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. The Thirty Years' War lasted from 1618 to 1648 in Europe, and was one of the most destructive wars in European history, claiming around eight million lives in total.In some places half the pre-war population died and the war thoroughly influenced the Baroque Era which had prevalent themes of "vanitas" or the ultimate death and decay of all earthly things. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. , Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. , At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex, and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. A few days later, Ferdinand withdrew the Edict and signed the Peace of Prague, dissolving the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues, and creating a single Imperial army, although Saxony and Bavaria retained control of their own forces. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". , This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. 1-16 of 686 results for "30 years war" Skip to main search results Amazon Prime. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Unlike French gains which were incorporated into France, Swedish territories remained part of the Empire, and they became members of the Lower and Upper Saxon kreis. 30 Years War Essay 1416 Words 6 Pages The four stages of the Thirty Years' War, which was fought mostly in the Holy Roman Empire (modern Germany), involved nearly all of the major powers of Europe, and was a war that used religion as a cover-up for politics. In addition, Christians residing in states where they were a minority, such as Catholics living under a Lutheran ruler, were guaranteed freedom of worship and equality before the law. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. , Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions.  However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. Jun 2nd 2011. , France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire.…, The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. , Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. Based on analysis of contemporary reports, less than 3% of civilian deaths were the result of military action; the major causes were starvation (12%), bubonic plague (64%), typhus (4%), and dysentery (5%). The Thirty Years War, a multifaceted and multinational political and military conflict that raged over central Europe between 1618 and 1648 has often been considered, at least in the scope of misery and destruction it brought to those experiencing it, as a disaster comparable to, if not greater than, the two world wars and the Black Death. , One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. , Managing these issues was complicated by the fragmented nature of the Empire, a patchwork of nearly 1,800 separate entities in Germany, the Low Countries, Northern Italy, and areas like Alsace, now part of modern France. Thirty Years' War is a game designed by HQ and it covers one of the darkest ages of European history. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. This second phase ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. Over the next eighteen months, Spanish and Catholic League forces won a series of victories; by November 1622, they controlled most of the Palatinate, apart from Frankenthal, held by a small English garrison under Sir Horace Vere. Ferdinand and his advisors were greatly concerned by the brutal nature of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials, fearing they would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. James responded to this attack on his son-in-law by sending naval forces to threaten Spanish possessions in the Americas and the Mediterranean, and announced he would declare war if Spinola had not withdrawn his troops by spring 1621. 30 years war synonyms, 30 years war pronunciation, 30 years war translation, English dictionary definition of 30 years war. , Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHeitz,_Risher1995 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParker1997 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilson1976 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHayden1973 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSpielvogel2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDavenport1917 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMurdoch,_Grosjean2014 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParker,_Adams1997 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPorshnev,_Dukes1995 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMurdoch,_Zickermann,_Marks2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMitchell2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFIsrael1989 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSchulze,_Volckart2019 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPfister,_Riedel,_Uebele2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBonney2002pp89-90 (, Protestantism was effectively wiped out in what is now Austria and the Czech Republic, and it was severely damaged in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Romania, Ireland, Belgium, Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, eastern. 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