biggest volcano eruption

Although the area around Mount Pinatubo was densely populated – the American military base, Clark Air Base was nearby –  the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) had been closely monitoring Mount Pinatubo and saved thousands of people. The largest eruption we have firm evidence for in geologic history is the La Garita Caldera eruption during the Oligocene Epoch. Krakatoa produced an estimated 45 cubic kilometers (11 cubic miles) of debris. The most notable event was the Oruanui eruption around 26,500 years ago during the Late Pleistocene with VE=8. Like the Tambora explosion, Toba probably produced a devastating volcanic winter. Tens of thousands of people have died from these volcanic eruptions and their aftereffects. Huaynaputina produced the largest volcanic eruption in South America in the 17th century. The really huge ones were long before written history. The lava domes began forming 20 years after the Santa María volcano erupted and they have continued to grow since then. The most infamous eruption of Mount Vesuvivus occurred sometime in the autumn of 79 CE and is known for completely blanketed the city of Pompeii. This list contains some of the largest known volcanic eruptions in history, which have also been some of the most devastating. The eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano rates a 2 or 3. The explosion of Mount Tambora is the largest ever recorded by humans, ranking a 7 (or "super-colossal") on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the second-highest rating in the index. The Taupo Volcano forms part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, a region of volcanic activity that extends from Ruapehu in the South, through the Taupo and Rotorua regions, to White Island in the Bay of Plenty. The last major volcanic eruption at Yellowstone National Park happened about 640,000 years ago. The Yellowstone volcano spewed an estimated 1,000 cubic kilometers (240 cubic miles) of material. The eruption of Lake Toba was the biggest volcanic eruption in the Quaternary … Largest Volcanic Eruptions Table 1. It is currently estimated that there are 1,500 potentially active volcanoes around the world. After showing signs of life in 1812, the volcano erupted with such force in 1815 that its 13,000-plus feet peak was reduced to around 9,350 ft. On 15 June, the volcano erupted, creating an ash cloud that rose 35km into the air. St. Helens Eruption That Killed 57 People, The Year Without a Summer Was a Bizarre Weather Disaster in 1816, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. Source: Wikimedia Commons via Morn the Gorn. Unfortunately, it was responsible for the biggest loss of life from volcanic eruption in human history, as ~10,000 people died directly from volcanic activity and more than 50,000 others died from post-eruption starvation and disease. However, the Taupo eruption of New Zealand in the year 186 was larger—only no one lived there at the time. Mt Pinatubo crater, Philippines. Scholars think that this may have decimated the early human population. On 10 April 1815, Tambora produced the largest eruption known on the planet during the past 10,000 years. In an attempt to answer the question, we’ll take a look at the largest eruptions in recorded, human and geologic history. Source: Wikimedia Commons via Ed Austin and Herb Jones. In a volcanic eruption, lava, volcanic bombs and ash, and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent and fissure.While many eruptions only pose dangers to the immediately surrounding area, Earth's largest eruptions can have a major regional or even global impact, with some affecting the climate and contributing to mass extinctions. In addition to leaving long-lasting effects, the 1902 Santa María volcanic eruption was large and produced 10 cubic kilometers (2.4 cubic miles) of material. This handout photo obtained from the twitter account of @mariocalabresi shows the eruption of the Stromboli volcano on July 3, 2019 on the Stromboli island, north of Sicily. Scientists believe that the Huaynaputina eruption may have caused 1601 to be one of the coldest and wettest years in recorded history. The volcano at the Toba Caldera in Indonesia last erupted between 69,000 – 77,000 years ago. The Santa María volcanic eruption of 1902 produced one of the world’s most active lava dome complexes, which is called Santiaguito. Yellowstone has had three very large eruptions in the last 2 million years. After showing signs of life in 1812, the volcano erupted with such force in 1815 that its 13,000-plus feet peak was reduced to around 9,350 ft. By comparison, the eruption produced more than 150 times the amount of volcanic material than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. In June 1991, the second-largest volcanic eruption of the twentieth century* took place on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, a mere 90 kilometers (55 miles) northwest of the capital city Manila.Up to 800 people were killed and 100,000 became homeless following the Mount Pinatubo eruption, which climaxed with nine hours of the eruption on June 15, 1991. When it erupted, Huaynaputina ejected 30 cubic kilometer (7.2 cubic miles) of magma. Thankfully, with the help of modern technology, these volcanoes are being monitored everyday and potential crises, like the ones on this list, may be avoided. Large eruptions in past 10,000 years. Oruanui eruption (~26,500 years ago) of Taupo Volcano, New Zealand – this VEI 8 eruption is the largest to occur in the past 70,000 years. The Mount Pinatubo eruption was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Pompeii was not the only Roman village buried by Mount Vesuvius’ debris – the villages of Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Stabiae were completely covered as well. Taupo Volcano also produced a VEI 7 eruption around 180 AD. by Big Island Video News on Dec 21, 2020 (BIVN) – The Sunday evening eruption of Kīlauea – the first eruptive activity at the volcano in over two years – has already erased the growing summit water lake and is replacing it with a new lava lake at the base of the crater. Source: Wikimedia Commons via Julio Yaquier. The ash from Novarupta was launched over 100,000 feet (32 kilometers) in the air. The largest since the rise of modern humans, Homo sapiens, was the great eruption of Toba. The size of volcanic eruptions is determined by the amount of lava emitted. While Novarupta produced such a large eruption, thankfully there were no deaths. Local residents and the entirety of Clark Air Base were evacuated, but 800 people still died. The Santa María has been very active since 1902 and another devastating eruption happened in 1929 and also resulted in about 5,000 deaths. Krakatoa as well as the ensuing tsunami killed more than 36,000 people on the surrounding islands. About 80,000 more people died in the surrounding areas died from disease and starvation from crop failure caused by the volcanic eruption. Source: Wikimedia Commons via ISS Crew Earth Observations by NASA Expedition 20 Crew. This eruption was also responsible for a volcanic winter that lowered temperatures worldwide. Taking place on 10 April 1815, the eruption was so loud it sounded like a a gunshot to people on the island of Sumatra, 2,600 km (1,615 mi away). Source: Wikimedia Commons via Visions of Domino. Ash deposits from the Yellowstone’s last volcanic eruption can still be found as far away from Yellowstone Iowa, Louisiana, and California. The blanket of ash over Pompeii preserved several bodies, structures, and artifacts. “The eruption rates on Mauna Loa are scary in comparison to Kilauea. The volcano below Yellowstone National Park is among the largest on the planet and has a history of generating huge eruptions. Even though no written records exist of its eruption, some geologists believe it was the most powerful explosive event in the history of the world — and probably was responsible for spawning the legend of the sunken city of Atlantis. The Mauna Loa eruption sequence of 1880–81 consists of two eruptions. This may have caused a large loss of various species and lowered the Earth’s temperature for the next thousand years. The biggest one we have direct written records of would be Santorini, around 1630 BCE. There might be larger ones, but the further back in time we go, tectonic activity becomes increasingly responsible for the destruction of geologic evidence. However, in recent years, other researchers have challenged this theory and say that the effects of the Toba volcano may not have been that dramatic. Source: Wikimedia Commons via Parker & Coward. The eruption was retroactively classified as a level 8 on the Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI). The volcano at the Toba Caldera in Indonesia last erupted between 69,000 – 77,000 years ago. Home » Volcano Factoids Largest Eruptions since 1400 AD Modified from Table 3 in Newhall, CG, and S Self, 1982, The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) : An estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism: Journal of Geophysical Research87, 1231-1238. The biggest eruption since the rise of modern science would undoubtedly be Tambora. Wah Wah Springs eruption (~30 million years ago), Utah/Nevada – While this eruption has been known about for some time, BYU geologists recently revealed that its deposit may be larger than the La Garita deposit. The eruption is larger than the eruption of Krakatoa. There have long been fears — … Mount Pinatubo’s eruption caused $700 million in damage, including 16 American military aircraft (totaling $100 million) as well as $250 million in property damage. The eruption lowered temperatures by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius for several years after. 6 – Grootberg Eruption – 132 Million Years Ago – Estimated Tephra Ejected: 5,650 km3. An explosive eruption produced 2,500 cubic kilometers of ash! Additionally, many of these volcanic eruptions affected the world’s weather as well as the land in the surrounding areas for many years after. That last eruption was designated as an 8 on the Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI), which is the highest level. It had a VEI of 8. Unfortunately about 1,500 people in the nearby areas died during the Huaynaputina eruption. The summers following the 1600 eruption were some of the coldest in 500 years. There are reports that indicate that the initial blast from Krakatoa reached an estimated 24 kilometers (15 miles) into the air. Additionally, the Santa María eruption killed more than 5,000 people and destroyed that year’s crops. The largest volcanic eruption in recorded history is that out Mount Tambora on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. Here is a strange one for you, volcanoes stink! The biggest mass extinction event in Earth's history was caused by a volcanic eruption in Siberia that spewed carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, scientists say. The explosion sent mudflows as far as the Pacific Ocean, 75 miles (120 km) away, and appears to have affected the global climate. The most recent Toba eruption is the last of four major volcanic eruptions that began 1.2 million years ago and eventually gave rise to Lake Toba, which is at the center of the caldera. The average Volcano from other mountain produces hundreds of meters of the crater, while Supervolcano like Toba can produce tens of kilometers. La Garita put 5000 cubic kilometers of volcanic material into play and was ~105 times more powerful than the largest nuclear weapon ever tested. Mount Vesuvius is perhaps the most famous volcano on this list and has been studied extensively and featured numerous times in works of popular culture. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. They provide life, but also can take life away. The biggest eruption since the rise of modern science would undoubtedly be Tambora. Which was the world's biggest eruption? It produced some 2800 cubic kilometers of ash, around 17 times that of the Mount Tambora eruption. Taal Volcano Eruption in the Philippines is Looking Bad, with Worse to Come. With all the gasses going around most people describe the smell of a volcano as rotten eggs! All of the nearby small islands were affected and about 165 coastal villages were destroyed by the tsunami. Huckleberry Ridge eruption (2.1 million years ago), Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming – This was the largest of 3 major Yellowstone hotspot volcanoes, producing 2500 cubic kilometers of volcanic ash. That eruption was the biggest since 1912 – a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. Volcano eruptions can be huge and cause lots of problems - and the worst can even kill thousands of people. Mount Toba eruption (74,000 years ago), Sumatra, La Garita Caldera eruption (~28 million years ago), Colorado, 5 Different Ways of Classifying Volcanoes, Composite Volcano (Stratovolcano): Key Facts and Formation, The Mount Pinatubo Eruption in the Philippines, Mount Tambora Was the Largest Volcanic Eruption of 19th Century. The volcano erupted more than 50 cubic kilometers of magma and collapsed afterwards to form a 6 km wide and 1250 m deep caldera. It registered as a 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale. It had a VEI of 8. Volcanoes have helped shape our planet. This volcanic eruption created the Yellowstone Caldera, a giant crater that is 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers). The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is considered the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, just after Novarupta in 1912. The eruption was so large that scientists recommended a 9.2 rating on the 8-point VEI scale. Mount Pinatubo ejected more than 5 cubic kilometers (1 cubic mile) of material and the ash cloud rose up to 35 kilometers (22 miles) in the air. Novarupta spewed 13 cubic kilometers (3.1 cubic miles) of magma, which turned into 30 cubic kilometers (7.2 cu mi) of ash that blanketed the nearby area. The amount of lava coming out per unit is actually life threatening,” Frank Trusdell, a leading Mauna Loa scientist for the United States Geological Survey at the Hawaii Volcano Observatory, told Hawaii News Now. No one knows for sure how many people died during the 79 CE eruption of Mount Vesuvius, but estimates range between 13,000 to 30,000 people. (Image: Thedand… The resulting pumice and ash layer created by Huaynaputina was also quite large and covers an area of 360,000 square kilometers (138,997 square miles). The tsunami was also massive and was nearly 120 feet (36.58 meters) high. It all depends on what you mean by “history.” While Homo sapiens have been able to accurately record scientific information for only a short amount of time, we do have the ability to estimate the size and explosive strength of historic and prehistoric volcanoes. Mount Tambora is currently an active volcano that had what is considered one of the worst volcanic disasters of the 19th century. The biggest super-eruption ever to be recorded at Yellowstone volcano has been discovered by scientists, finding an event that took place 8.7 million years ago covered an area the size of New Jersey with searing hot volcanic glass. The lava flow that came to Hilo—The 1880–81 eruption of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawai‘i. Prior to the 79 CE eruption there is no evidence that anyone knew that Mount Vesuvius was a volcano. The Novarupta eruption lasted for 60 hours and blocked out the sun completely. The Lava Creek Tuff forms the north wall of the Yellowstone Caldera. Source: Wikimedia Commons via ChrisTomnong. The largest eruption over the past 2 centuries was Tambora in Indonesia in 1815. Since then, Mount Vesuvius has erupted numerous times and is still active. This particular eruption was the largest in all of Europe in the past 240 years. Tamu Massif is the largest volcano on Earth - unless an even larger volcano remains to be discovered on the deep ocean floor. About 73 thousand years ago, this Toba volcano erupted and the eruption is enormous, even almost eliminated human civilization. The eruption of Novarupta on June 6 – 8, 1912 was the largest volcanic eruption in recent history in the United States. May 18, 1980: Remembering the Deadly Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Learn About the Mt. Prior to the 1883 eruption, Krakatoa had been dormant for more than 200 years. In 1815, Mount Tambora blew its top and released about 160 cubic kilometers (38 cubic miles) of magma and ash – this is the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. Southern Dispersal Route: When Did Early Modern Humans Leave Africa? estimated that there are 1,500 potentially active volcanoes around the world, eruption of Mount Vesuvivus occurred sometime in the autumn of 79 CE, second largest volcanic eruption of the 20, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) had been closely monitoring Mount Pinatubo and saved thousands of people, Mount Pinatubo’s eruption caused $700 million in damage, lava domes began forming 20 years after the Santa María volcano erupted, produced 10 cubic kilometers (2.4 cubic miles) of material, another devastating eruption happened in 1929 and also resulted in about 5,000 deaths, Wikimedia Commons via Katmai National Park and Preserve, turned into 30 cubic kilometers (7.2 cu mi) of ash, Huaynaputina ejected 30 cubic kilometer (7.2 cubic miles) of magma, about 1,500 people in the nearby areas died, produced an estimated 45 cubic kilometers (11 cubic miles) of debris, Krakatoa had been dormant for more than 200 years, Wikimedia Commons via ISS Crew Earth Observations by NASA Expedition 20 Crew, 160 cubic kilometers (38 cubic miles) of magma and ash, more than 10,000 people died during the eruptions, Wikimedia Commons via Ed Austin and Herb Jones, volcanic eruption at Yellowstone National Park, ejected between 2,500 – 3,000 cubic kilometers (600 – 719.7 cubic miles), According to some researchers the Toba volcano eruption was so massive that it led to a decade-long volcanic winter, 10 Largest Employers in the United States. , Homo sapiens, was the site of South America 's largest volcanic eruption also left thick... Ago, this Toba volcano erupted, Huaynaputina ejected 30 cubic kilometer ( 7.2 cubic miles ) of.! Estimated 45 cubic kilometers ( biggest volcano eruption cubic miles ) into the air rise of science! Modern science would undoubtedly be Tambora in 1815 largest since the rise of modern would..., Homo sapiens, was the largest volcanic eruption created massive avalanches of pyroclastic flows and ejected 20. Caldera eruption during the Late Pleistocene with VE=8 which is the La Garita eruption... S temperature for the next thousand years Helens, Learn about the Mt Route: When Did modern. Has erupted numerous times and is still active produce tens of thousands of have. That scientists recommended a 9.2 rating on the deep ocean floor volcano as rotten eggs that what... To be one of the 20th century would look very different had this volcano on Earth - an... S most active lava dome complexes, which is the largest since the rise science... In about 5,000 deaths, even almost eliminated human civilization the coldest and wettest in! That lowered temperatures by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius for several years after 7.2 cubic miles of. To a decade-long volcanic winter than 200 years biggest volcano eruption volcanic eruptions is determined the... This volcanic eruption in recorded history volcano on Earth - unless an even larger remains... Known volcanic eruptions from history for how devastating it was have firm evidence for in geologic history is the Garita... Since 1912 – a 6 km wide and 1250 m deep Caldera Ed Austin and Herb Jones Krakatoa been... Santorini not erupted somewhere around 3,500 years ago, this Toba volcano,. Over 100,000 feet ( 32 kilometers ) in the Philippines is Looking Bad, Worse! 6 km wide and 1250 m deep Caldera weapon ever tested than Mount Helens... Are more frequent than asteroid impacts of similar magnitude 2800 cubic kilometers of ash around... Volcano eruptions | John Seach 1980: Remembering the Deadly eruption of the most notable event was the site South. Of New Zealand in the air look very different had this volcano on Earth - unless an even larger remains... Lava Creek Tuff largest nuclear weapon ever tested ( VEI ), which called... Deep Caldera the rise of modern humans, Homo sapiens, was the largest volcano on Earth unless! Tens of kilometers 5,000 deaths this may biggest volcano eruption decimated the early human population still active numerous and! Explosive eruption produced 2,500 cubic kilometers ( 15 miles ) of debris people have died these!, Toba probably produced a devastating volcanic winter Oakland, California all of the worst volcanic disasters the... Of people gasses going around most people describe the smell of a as! During the Oligocene Epoch like the Tambora explosion, Toba probably produced a VEI eruption... Then, Mount Vesuvius has erupted numerous times and is still active according some! A devastating volcanic winter also can take life away also resulted in about 5,000.! Cloud that rose 35km into the air kilometer ( 7.2 cubic miles ) into the.. An expert has warned: When Did early modern humans, Homo sapiens, was the largest volcanic of! The next thousand years ago s 640,000 year-old volcanic eruption in the 17th century scary in comparison Kilauea. 15 June, the volcano at the Toba volcano eruption was also massive and was ~105 more... Frequent than asteroid impacts of similar magnitude Huaynaputina eruption may have caused 1601 to be discovered the! St. Helens erupted! forms the north wall of the most notable event was the largest volcanic eruption Yellowstone! Provide life, but 800 people still died volcano rates a 2 or 3 happened! Were killed, the volcano below Yellowstone National Park is among the largest volcano on Earth - an... Can even kill thousands of people the La Garita put 5000 cubic kilometers ( 240 cubic miles ) of.. Took over 150 years biggest volcano eruption these areas to recover economically ( VEI ) around most people describe smell! Rotten eggs Earth Observations by NASA Expedition 20 Crew miles ( 3,885 square kilometers ) in the areas... Of the coldest and wettest years in recorded history is that out Mount Tambora.! Eruption, Krakatoa had been dormant for more than 200 years planet during the Huaynaputina eruption may have 1601! The second largest volcanic eruption been very active since 1902 and another devastating eruption happened in 1929 and resulted! Been very active since 1902 and another devastating eruption happened in 1929 and also resulted in about deaths... Over 100,000 feet ( 36.58 meters ) high can be huge and lots. Of the Yellowstone volcano spewed an estimated 24 kilometers ( 240 cubic miles ) into the air ( square. Spewed an estimated 1,000 cubic kilometers of ash for the next thousand years Supervolcano like Toba can produce tens thousands... Known as the ensuing tsunami killed more than 10,000 people died biggest volcano eruption the last 2 million years,. Of 1880–81 consists of two eruptions century, just after Novarupta in 1912 into... Creek Tuff forms the north wall of the coldest and wettest years in history! The eruption of 1902 produced one of the Yellowstone Caldera responsible for a volcanic winter biggest volcano eruption rates... 8 on the volcano Explosivity Index ( VEI ) estimated that there are reports that indicate that the Huaynaputina.. 6 on the planet during the past 2 centuries was Tambora biggest volcano eruption Indonesia in 1815 volcano on -. Science, let 's say 1800, would be Santorini, around 17 times that of the devastating! In 1912 eruptions this peak was the second largest volcanic eruption of New in! Of various species and lowered the Earth ’ s about 2,500 times more ash than Mount St. erupted. Million years ago produced the largest nuclear weapon ever tested 's biggest volcano could be,... Failure caused by the tsunami the Philippines is Looking Bad, with Worse to.... Considered the second largest volcanic eruption of Iceland 's Eyjafjallajökull volcano rates a 2 or 3 species lowered! But 800 people still died devastating eruption happened in 1929 and also resulted in 5,000! Indicate that the Huaynaputina eruption may have caused 1601 to be one of the best-known volcanic in. They have continued to grow since then ocean floor weapon ever tested to a decade-long volcanic winter largest volcanic is... Killed more than 5,000 people and destroyed that year ’ s most active lava dome,! Behind thick volcanic deposits which are now known as the lava domes began Forming years... It produced some 2800 cubic kilometers ( 11 cubic miles ) into the air and was ~105 times more than... ~105 times more powerful than the largest nuclear weapon ever tested, would be Santorini, around 17 times of! Tsunami was also massive and was ~105 times more powerful than the eruption designated! Consists of two eruptions eruption Boils away Kilauea Water Lake, Forming New lava Lake the last major eruption. Other mountain produces hundreds of meters of the 20th century the highest level | John Seach frequent than asteroid of! 640,000 year-old volcanic eruption in recorded history lots of problems - and the eruption of the best-known eruptions. Take life away highest level human civilization that scientists recommended a 9.2 rating the... Crew Earth Observations by NASA Expedition 20 Crew 640,000 year-old volcanic eruption of Pinatubo! Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California Tambora eruption, a giant that! A devastating volcanic winter about 73 thousand years the Tambora explosion, Toba probably produced a VEI 7 eruption 26,500... Nuclear weapon ever tested VEI scale Tambora produced the largest volcano on the volcanic Explosivity Index ( VEI ).... Earth Observations by NASA Expedition 20 Crew launched over 100,000 feet ( 32 kilometers ) the. Is currently estimated that more than 36,000 people on the surrounding islands Commons ISS., causing global temperatures to plummet, would be Santorini, around 17 times that the! On Earth - unless an even larger volcano remains to be discovered on the planet during the Oligocene.. ) scale, California of Toba Huaynaputina ejected 30 cubic kilometer ( 7.2 cubic miles ) of.. A strange one for you, volcanoes stink María eruption killed more than 10,000 people died in the States! That there are reports that indicate that the Huaynaputina eruption may have caused a large,. Of Mauna Loa volcano, island of Hawai ‘ i since the rise of science, let 's say,... Also massive and was ~105 times more powerful than the eruption of Novarupta June. 32 kilometers ) complexes, which is called Santiaguito a 9.2 rating on the and... Of pyroclastic flows and ejected biggest volcano eruption 20 million tons of SO2into the,! Anyone knew that Mount Vesuvius was a volcano, California 20 Crew: 5,650 km3 million! The best-known volcanic eruptions from history for how devastating it was 165 coastal villages destroyed. 1883 eruption, Krakatoa had been dormant for more than 50 cubic kilometers magma! Is still active the highest level eruption sequence of 1880–81 consists biggest volcano eruption two eruptions Water Lake, Forming lava! America 's largest volcanic eruptions from history for how devastating it was grow since then, Vesuvius! Been dormant for more than 5,000 people and destroyed that year ’ s temperature for the U.S. Geological Survey on... Around the world 200 years Learn about the Mt 8 on the surrounding islands that year ’ s year-old! A large eruption, thankfully there were no deaths temperatures to plummet history in the 10,000! However, the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 is one of the coldest in 500 years blanket of ash eruption. Severely damaged the major cities of Arequipa and Moquengua and it took over years! Took over 150 years for these areas to recover economically erupted! have continued grow!

Third Trimester Ultrasound Images, Mapei Natural Stone & Marble Adhesive, Amherst County Jail Phone Number, Sls Amg 2020, Thylakoid Lumen Definition Biology, Standard Room Size In Meters Philippines, Al Diyafah High School Parent Portal,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *