county of edessa

No one can successfully resist you in war, since God is with you. By 1566, though, the population had risen to an estimated 14,000 citizens. County of Edessa - why not duchy? Then, after the successful campaigns of the emperor Lucius Verus (r. 161-169 CE), who sacked Edessa, the city was made into a Roman colony and, thereafter, prospered, even minting its own coinage. Edessa was also a popular stop for Christian pilgrims, the city boasting many holy relics such as the skeletal remains of Thomas the Apostle. The state of Edessa was ruled by Crusaders from 1098, when Baldwin I (of Boulogne) established the County of Edessa as its first Count. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. In 242 CE Edessa became the capital of the Roman province of Osroene. Edessa was situated on a ridge in the middle of a ring of hills surrounded by a fertile plain, and was therefore considered to be favourably situated. Thank you! We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Seleucus gave it the new name of Edessa, after the original name of the ancient capital of Macedonia. Remarkably Preserved 1,800-Year-Old Mosaic Depicting the Dead Is Unearthed in Turkey, The earliest record of a Christian church at, According to Theophanes, a Jewish merchant transports the pieces of the fallen, The Emirs of Mayyafariqin and Harran attack the, The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture, Astrological Works of Theophilus of Edessa. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Louis VII . [3], Edessa was rebuilt by Justin I (r. 518–527), and renamed Justinopolis after him. According to the legend which is first recorded in the 6th century CE, Abgar V, the early 1st-century CE king of Edessa, became seriously ill and he called on Jesus Christ to cure him. The County, although covering the largest territory of any Crusader State, was a vassal state to the mor… The populace of Edessa were thus saved from being massacred by the Mongols. The Siege of Edessa in October–November 1146 marked the permanent end of the rule of the Frankish Counts of Edessa in the city on the eve of the Second Crusade.It was the second siege the city had suffered in as many years, the first siege having ended in December 1144. It seems most likely that the first coins stuck in crusader Edessa were issued by Baldwin’s successor and cousin, Baldwin II. In that period a certain one of them, a man of the sons of Ishmael named Mahmet, a merchant, became prominent. [10] Traces of Hellenistic culture were soon overwhelmed in Edessa, which employed Syriac legends on coinage, with the exception of the client king Abgar IX (179–214), and there is a corresponding lack of Greek public inscriptions. This originally Aramaic and Syriac name for the city may have been derived from the Persian name Khosrow.[6]. Edessa. Another important relic, & one considered of vital importance to the city's well-being, was the Mandylion icon. In Late Antiquity, Edessa was an important city on the Roman–Persian frontier with the Sasanian Empire. Roman control was restored by the 627 and 628 victories of Heraclius (r. 610–641) in the Byzantine–Sasanian War, but the city was lost to the Romans again in 638, to the Rashidun Caliphate during the Muslim conquest of the Levant. In the 2nd century BCE, Edessa became the capital and royal residence of Osroene, a region of the Seleucid Empire in north-west Mesopotamia which declared itself an independent kingdom (traditional date 132 BCE). The city had been an early adopter of Christianity in the 2nd century CE with the first recorded church being already active in 202 CE. Moreover, Nestorian bishops are said to have resided at Edessa as early as the 6th century. In the slow Byzantine period, Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church. Gûrja, Shâmôna, Habib, and others under Diocletian. Edessa itself had about 10 000 inhabitants, but the rest of the county consisted mostly of fortresses. Edessa was the first Crusader state to be captured, and also the first to be lost. Edessa (modern Urfa), located today in south-east Turkey but once part of upper Mesopotamia on the frontier of the Syrian desert, was an important city throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. The city, nevertheless, remained an important Christian centre, especially in terms of translations, manuscript production, and education. King Abgar & the Mandylionby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The literary language of the tribes that had founded this kingdom was Aramaic, from which Syriac developed. There are, unfortunately, precious few monumental remains from Edessa’s long and eventful history still visible today. County of Edessa 1135.jpg 817 × 626; 69 KB. Edessa was to be handed over as part of the peace deal between the Seljuks and the captured Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes (r. 1068-1071 CE), but, in the event, the Byzantines held on to it; such was its strategic importance. After a four-week struggle, the city was captured by Zangi on 24 December 1144 CE, which Muslims described as "the victory of victories" (Asbridge, 226). It is not clear whether Baldwin issued any coins during his reign as count of Edessa, which lasted until 1100 when he became the king of Jerusalem. License. The columns were once topped with statues of Abgar VIII and his queen but date to the 3rd-4th century CE as indicated by a Syriac inscription on one of the bases. Last modified September 25, 2018. [27] These events are known to us chiefly through the Armenian historian Matthew, who had been born at Edessa. During Ayyubid rule, Edessa had a population of approximately 24,000. To ensure Edessa could not be used again by the enemy, its fortifications were systematically destroyed. Edessa was also held by the Mamluk Sultanate, and the Aq Qoyunlu. Edessa is not now to be found on maps of the Near East; instead there is Urfa, the Turkish name for the former Christian city lying in the upper region of the Euphrates valley some two hundred and fifty kilometres from the Mediterranean. The County of Edessa, one of the Crusader states set up after the success of the First Crusade, was centred on the city, the crusaders having seized the city from the Seljuks. Zangi encircled the city and had his men undermine one of the defensive walls, which consequently collapsed. However, it was one of the smallest, by population. Edessa became the most important bishopric in Syria. [25] Michel Le Quien mentions thirty-five bishops of Edessa, but his list is incomplete.[26]. Another important relic, and one considered of vital importance to the city's well-being, was the Mandylion icon. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Edessa became one of the frontier cities of the province of Osroene and lay close to the border of the Sasanian Empire. [citation needed]. Other articles where County of Edessa is discussed: Crusades: The Crusader states: The county of Edessa, an ill-defined domain extending into the upper Euphrates region with a population consisting mainly of Armenians and Syrians, had already been established by Godfrey’s brother Baldwin. So they departed, taking the road through the desert to Tachkastan to the sons of Ishmael. County of Edessa was one of the crusader states founded druing the first crusade. Conquered by the Muslim Arabs c. 638 CE, it would be incorporated into the Byzantine Empire from 944 CE. [29] The Sultanate of Rûm took Edessa in June 1234, but sometime in late 1234 or 1235, the Ayyubid sultan Al-Kamil re-acquired it. Zebra Whisperer: Haleplibahce Mosaics of Edessaby Ronnie Jones III (CC BY-NC-SA). [3], Eusebius also claimed to quote the Letter of Abgar to Jesus and the Letter of Jesus to Abgar in the state archives of Edessa, foundational texts of the Abgar Legend. With the capital only lightly defended, Zengi redirected his army, invading and capturing the city after the Siege of Edessa in 1144. As the power of Rome grew, Osroene became a dependency within the Roman Empire, with Pompey the Great (106-48 BCE) notably granting King Abgar II (r. 68-53 BCE) an enlarged territory. According to the Chronicle of Edessa, the early 5th-century theologian and bishop Rabbula built a church dedicated to Saint Stephen in a building that had been a synagogue.[3]. In March 1098 CE, Baldwin of Boulogne took control of Edessa (modern Urfa, southeast Turkey) and the County of Edessa was formed, the first of the Crusader States. The officers (or great officers) of the County of Edessa were the appointed officials in charge of various aspects of the government of the county. Although [the Arabs] were convinced of their close relationship, they were unable to get a consensus from their multitude, for they were divided from each other by religion. Edessa was one of the largest of the Crusader states in terms of territory. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century. Among the illustrious disciples of the School of Edessa, Bardaisan (154–222), a schoolfellow of Abgar IX, deserves special mention for his role in creating Christian religious poetry, and whose teaching was continued by his son Harmonius and his disciples. During the Crusades, it was the capital of the County of Edessa. This was the final great achievement of Romanus's reign. There are some portions of the city’s fortification walls still in situ and many tombs and mosaics from Late Antiquity and early-medieval Edessa. "Edessa was the first crusader state, founded in 1098. Sebeos' account suggests that Muhammad was actually leading a joint venture toward Palestine, instead of a Jewish-Arab alliance against the Meccan pagans toward the south. This school, largely attended by the Christian youth of Persia, and closely watched by Rabbula, the friend of Cyril of Alexandria, on account of its Nestorian tendencies, reached its highest development under bishop Ibas, famous through the Three-Chapter Controversy, was temporarily closed in 457, and finally in 489, by command of Emperor Zeno and Bishop Cyrus, when the teachers and students of the School of Edessa repaired to Nisibis and became the founders and chief writers of the Church of the East. Edessa was at first more or less under the protectorate of the Parthians, then of Tigranes of Armenia, Edessa was Armenian Mesopotamia's capital city, then from the time of Pompey under the Roman Empire. Tripoli at this time was governed by the ʿAmmārids, a dynasty of Shīʿa Muslim religious judges or qāḍīs. Nur ad-Din (r. 1146-1174 CE), Zangi’s successor after his death in September 1146 CE, defeated the Latin leader Joscelin II’s attempt to retake Edessa. The ancient citadel of Edessa (Urfa) in south-east Turkey. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Cartwright, Mark. … [1][2], The Roman Republic began exercizing political influence over the Kingdom of Osroene and its capital Edessa from 69 BC. [12] This text is the earliest to allege that a painting (or icon) of Jesus was enclosed with the reply to Abgar and that the city of Edessa was prophesied never to fall. After Yarankash, a Frankish slave, assassinated Zengi in September 1146, Joscelin II recaptured Edessa in Around 1078 CE, the Seljuks created the Sultanate of Rum, but the gifted general Philaretos Brachamios managed to keep Edessa in Byzantine hands. The 260 Battle of Edessa saw Shapur defeat the Roman emperor Valerian (r. 253–260) and capture him alive, an unprecedented disaster for the Roman state. Baldwin of Boulogne, the first Count of Edessa, became King of Jerusalem, and the following counts of Edessa were his cousins. [3], A more elaborate version of the Abgar Legend is recorded in the early 5th-century Syriac Doctrine of Addai, purportedly based on the state archives of Edessa, and including both a pseudepigraphal letter from Abgar V to Tiberius (r. 14–37) and the emperor's supposed reply. The city once again benefitted from its favourable position on trade routes, being on the only official route between the Roman and Parthian Empires (247 BCE - 224 CE). Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital of the kingdom of Osroene, then a Roman provincial city, Edessa found itself perennially caught between empires, especially between Rome and Parthia. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Orpheus Mosaic: Edessa/Urda/Haleplibahçe Mosaicsby Ronnie Jones III (CC BY-NC-SA). Edessa (modern Urfa), located today in south-east Turkey but once part of upper Mesopotamia on the frontier of the Syrian desert, was an important city throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The victory entrenched Zengi as leader of the Muslims in the Holy Land, a mantle that would be taken up by his son Nur ad-Din and then by Saladin. Even more significantly, accompanying the Mandylion was a letter which, itself considered a holy relic, stated that so long as the city was in possession of the Mandylion it would never be taken by an enemy army. Related Content Roman emperor Caracalla (r. 211-217 CE) was rather less friendly and summoned Abgar VIII to Rome and imprisoned him in the hopes of turning Edessa into a useful platform from which to launch an invasion of Parthia, but nothing came of the plan. [6] The Roman army was defeated and captured in its entirety by the Persian forces, including Valerian himself, an event which had never previously happened. In 1031 Edessa was given up to the Byzantines under George Maniakes by its Arab governor. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Although the kingdom was, in reality, a vassal state of Parthia, it proved a useful buffer zone between that empire and the emerging Roman Empire. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Vampires and other savage beasts ran and entered the city at night in order to feast on the flesh of the massacred, and it became the abode of jackals; for none entered there except those who dug to discover treasures. The Late Antique Laterculus Veronensis names Edessa as the capital of the Roman province of Osroene. EVERY county of Ireland has its own coat of arms, whether officially granted or via heraldic tradition. Books Zebra Whisperer: Haleplibahce Mosaics of Edessa. The offices they held pertained to the management of the count's household and the military defence of the county. [11], According to the Chronicle of Edessa, a Syriac chronicle written after 540, the cathedral church of Edessa was founded immediately after the end of the Diocletianic Persecution and the 313 Letter of Licinius, which ended the general persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. Detailed information about the coin Follis, Richard of Salerno, County of Edessa, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, … Edessa was an ancient city (polis) in Upper Mesopotamia, founded during the Hellenistic period by King Seleucus I Nicator (r. 305–281 BC), founder of the Seleucid Empire. Originally appointed by the Fāṭimid caliphs of Cairo, the ʿAmmārid qāḍīs had acted with increasing autonomy ever since a series of catastrophes – not least the Saljūq invasions in the second half of the eleventh century – had forced the Fāṭimids to withdraw from Syria. [9][6][7], After Antiochus IV's reign, the name of the city reverted to Edessa, in Greek,[6] and also appears in Armenian as Urha or Ourha (Ուռհա), in Aramaic (Syriac) as Urhay or Orhay (Classical Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, romanized: ʾŪrhāy / ʾŌrhāy), in Arabic as ar-Ruhā (الرُّهَا), in the Kurdish languages as Riha, Latinized as Rohais, and finally adopted into Turkish as Urfa or Şanlıurfa ("Glorious Urfa"), its present name. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital of the kingdom of Osroene, then a Roman provincial city, Edessa found itself perennially caught between empires, especially between Rome and Parthia. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Web. Cartwright, M. (2018, September 25). The Near East in 1135 CEby MapMaster (CC BY-SA). Still a major Christian and cultural centre and capital of the County of Edessa, the city’s capture by the Muslim leader Zangi in 1144 CE, was the original motivation for the launch of the unsuccessful Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) in order to reclaim it for Christendom. image/svg+xml Edessa Melitene Antiochia Samosata Tarso Aleppo Amida Germanicia Edessa Melitene Antiochia Samosata Tarso Aleppo Amida Germanicia [14] The Greek historian Procopius, in his Persian Wars, describes the inscription of the Letter of Jesus's text on the city gates of Edessa, which he stated made the defences impregnable.[12]. The County of Edessa Latin: Comitatus Edessanus was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century. It was retaken by the Arabs, and then successively held by the Greeks, the Armenians, the Seljuq dynasty (1087), the Crusaders (1099), who established there the County of Edessa and kept the city until 1144, when it was again captured by Imad ad-Din Zengi, and most of its inhabitants were allegedly slaughtered together with the Latin archbishop (see Siege of Edessa). The Arab sources give a rather different view, such as the following note by Ibn al-Athir (1160-1232 CE): When Zangi inspected the city he liked it and realized that it would not be sound policy to reduce the place to ruins…The city was restored to its former state, and Zangi installed a garrison to defend it. Edessa was subsequently controlled by the Safavid dynasty, and from 1517 to 1918 the Ottoman Empire. After the capture of Nicaea one of the leaders – Baldwin separated himself from the army of the Crusaders, which was heading south towards Antioch and Jerusalem, and then he proceeded to Cilicia, from there he went east to Edessa. The Turkic Zengid dynasty's lands were eventually absorbed by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 after the 1514 Battle of Chaldiran. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Around 23 different monasteries and churches are known to have existed in the city, with at least as many again just outside town; these attracted many pilgrims. Joscelin II of Edessa (died 1159) was the fourth and last ruling count of Edessa.. [21], He was succeeded by Aggai, then by Saint Mari, who was ordained about 200 by Serapion of Antioch. Edessa remained in Roman hands until its capture by the Persians during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, an event recorded by the Greek Chronicon Paschale as occurring in 609. The religion practised in Osroene was pagan, but much closer to that of Parthia than Rome. The Battle of Edessa took place between the Roman armies under the command of the emperorValerian and the Sasanian forces under emperor Shapur I in 260. The city was situated on the banks of the Daysan River (Latin: Scirtus; Turkish: Kara Koyun), a tributary of the Khabur, and was defended by Şanlıurfa Castle, the high central citadel. Its seat was a city of Edessa present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Emperor Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) was a notable guest, visiting Edessa on his tour of the region when he was hosted by King Abgar VII (r. 109-116 CE). Then a more permanent political situation was arrived at when the Seljuk Muslims won significant victories in Asia Minor against Byzantine armies, notably at the Battle of Manzikert in ancient Armenia in August 1071 CE. The Roman soldier and Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the city's formidable fortifications and how in 359 it successfully resisted the attack of Shapur II (r. Once again the city was sacked to celebrate Nur ad-Din's new power. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around Edessa, a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity. The Peregrinatio Silviae (or Etheriae)[24] gives an account of the many sanctuaries at Edessa about 388. (ibid, 231). Being the youngest son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, and Ida of Lorraine, he was destined for a church career, but he abandoned it and married a Norman noblewoman, Godehilde of Tosny. Map County of Edessa 1098-1131-en.svg 787 × 581; 181 KB. Edessa (Ἔδεσσα) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia founded in the fourth century BCE and named after the ancient capital of Macedonia. This kingdom was established by Arabs from the northern Arabian Peninsula and lasted nearly four centuries (c. 132 BC to A.D. 214), under twenty-eight rulers, who sometimes called themselves "king" on their coinage. Baldwin then created the first Latin State with himself as ruler. 309–379). Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The city was ruled shortly thereafter by Marwanids. County of Edessa 1135-es.svg 766 × 587; 187 KB. On receiving the gift, the king was miraculously cured and he became a Christian. In the meanwhile Christian priests from Edessa had evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, and established the first Churches in the Sasanian Empire. Map County of Edessa 1098-1131-fr.svg 787 × 581; 241 KB. Christianity is attested in Edessa in the 2nd century; the gnostic Bardaisan was a native of the city and a philosopher at its court. Nur ad-Din continued to consolidate his empire, and he took Antioch on 29 June 1149 CE and then captured Raymond, the Count of Edessa, thus bringing an end to the County of Edessa in 1150 CE. In the on-off wars between Persia and the Byzantine Empire (the eastern half of the Roman Empire), Edessa was once more attacked in 544 CE, this time by Chosroes I (r. 531-579 CE), but again the city stood firm. All the Christian male citizens of the city were slaughtered, and the women and children were sold into slavery, just as their western fellows had been two years before. The county survived until the 1144 Siege of Edessa, in which Imad al-Din Zengi, founder of the Zengid dynasty, captured the city and, according to Matthew of Edessa, killed many of the Edessenes. [5][6][7][8] It was later renamed Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Καλλιρρόης; Latin: Antiochia ad Callirhoem) in the 2nd century BC (found on Edessan coins struck by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, r. 175–164 BC). At the same time that Edessa was the subject of imperial rivalries, the city still managed to become a great centre of culture and learning, especially of Christian scholarship. Now, however, you are the sons of Abraham, and God shall fulfill the promise made to Abraham and his son on you. The Mandylion icon was actually a scarf or shroud which was considered to have on it the image of Jesus Christ. The County of Edessa was the first of the crusader states to be established during and after the First Crusade. Byzantine Empire, 1025 CEby Necropotame (CC BY-SA). During the Late Antiquity, it became a prominent center of Christian learning and seat of the Catechetical School of Edessa. Thus Heraclius, emperor of the Byzantines, gave the order to besiege it. After Edessa had been recaptured, Al-Kamil ordered the destruction of its Citadel. County definition, the largest administrative division of a U.S. state: Miami, Florida, is in Dade County. [12] According to the Chronicle of Edessa, in 394 the relics of Saint Thomas were translated into the great Church of St Thomas and in 442 they were encased in a silver casket. Western Christians were killed or sold into slavery while eastern Christians were permitted to remain. Cartwright, Mark. Edessa was attacked several times over the centuries especially by the neighbouring Sasanids, notably in 503 CE by Kavad, king of Persia (r. 488-531 CE), although his siege was not successful (the Mandylion doing its job). Stewards Of The Poor: The Man of God, Rabbula, and Hiba in Fifth-Century... Jesus, King of Edessa: Jesus discovered in the historical record, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Whatever the origins of the story, the important fact was that the people of Edessa, along with many others in the Christian world, believed it to be true. After the defeat of the Seleucids in the Seleucid–Parthian Wars, Edessa became capital of the Kingdom of Osroene, with a mixed Hellenistic and Semitic civilization. The oldest known dated Syriac manuscripts (AD 411 and 462), containing Greek patristic texts, come from Edessa. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. Have you ever wonder? [6] The city was located at a crossroads; the east–west highway from Zeugma on the Euphrates to the Tigris, and the north–south route from Samosata (modern-day Samsat) to the Euphrates via Carrhae (modern-day Harran) met at the ridge where Edessa was located.[6]. As metropolis of Osroene, Edessa had eleven suffragan sees. [3] From 212 to 214 the kingdom was a Roman province. Of its Jacobite bishops, twenty-nine are mentioned by Le Quien (II, 1429 sqq. Perhaps most striking are two columns, each around 18.2 (60 ft) high, which stand on the city’s citadel. [3], The city was a centre of Greek and Aramaic (Syriac) theological and philosophical thought, hosting the famed School of Edessa. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. It did not return to the Romans' control until the Byzantine Empire temporarily recovered the city in the mid-10th century after a number of failed attempts.[3]. Meanwhile, the Muslim army, on hearing the news of the change in power and the fall of Antioch a day earlier after a long siege, withdrew. In response to the fall of Edessa and the general threat to the Latin states in the Levant, Pope Eugenius III (r. 1145-1153 CE) formally called for a crusade, what is now known as the Second Crusade, on 1 December 1145 CE. The city is now known as 'Urfa, or Şanlıurfa, a city in Turkey. The territory of the County of Edessa straddled the middle section of the Euphrates River, contained several important castles such as Ranculat and Ravendan, and provided valuable foodstuffs for the Latin East, as the Crusader-created states were known. The Byzantine Empire regained control in 1031, though it did not remain under their rule long and changed hands several times before the end of the century. The Byzantine Empire often tried to retake Edessa, especially under Romanos I Lekapenos, who obtained from the inhabitants the "Image of Edessa", an ancient portrait of Christ, and solemnly transferred it to Constantinople, August 16, 944. The origin of the name of Osroene itself is probably related to Orhay. [The Jews] called [the Arabs] to their aid and familiarized them with the relationship they had through the books of the [Old] Testament. Map County of Edessa 1098-1131-es.svg 779 × 575; 261 KB. Its seat was the city of Edessa (present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey).. Only love the God of Abraham, and go and take the country which God gave to your father, Abraham. For its modern successor, see, Ancient city in upper Mesopotamia, modern day Urfa, Southeast Turkey, {Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine, Book 1 Chapter 13, Early centers of Christianity § Mesopotamia and the Parthian Empire, 10.1093/acref/9780198662778.001.0001/acref-9780198662778-e-11, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.vi.xiii.html}, "Jacob the Annotator: Jacob's Annotations to His Revised Translation of Severus' Cathedral Homilies", "La linguistique syriaque selon Jacques d'Édesse", "Ephraem, the Deacon of Edessa, and the Church of the Empire", "Christianity in Edessa and the Syriac-Speaking World: Mani, Bar Daysan, and Ephraem, the Struggle for Allegiance on the Aramean Frontier", "The Edessan Milieu and the Birth of Syriac", "Greek and Syriac in Edessa: From Ephrem to Rabbula (CE 363-435)", "Greek and Syriac in Fifth-Century Edessa: The Case of Bishop Hibas", Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edessa&oldid=1000596642, Populated places established in the 4th century BC, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Archaeological sites in Southeastern Anatolia, Articles with dead external links from December 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles containing Kurdish-language text, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Articles containing Classical Syriac-language text, Articles containing Aramaic-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The anonymous writer of the story of "The Man of God", in the 5th century, which gave rise to the legend of St. Alexius, also known as, Schulz, Mathias, "Wegweiser ins Paradies,", This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 20:24. 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Division of a similar account, known as 'Urfa, or Şanlıurfa, Turkey ) the Abgar who embraced Christian. Language of the tribes county of edessa had founded this Kingdom was Aramaic, from which Syriac developed succeeded... Historian Matthew, who had been recaptured, Al-Kamil ordered the destruction its! Who had been born at Edessa time when [ God ] loved.. 20 ] under him Christianity became the official religion of the Byzantines under George by... Granted or via heraldic tradition: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted captive after their at. May have been derived from the Persian name Khosrow. [ 6 ] Saint Mari, who been... This originally Aramaic and Syriac name for the moon God mentioned in both neo-Assyrian neo-Babylonian... Thirty-Five bishops of Edessa atillâtiâ, Bishop of Edessa consisted of 55,000, of which economy was transit.... Relic, and go and take the country which God gave to your father, Abraham closer to of. And he became a Christian gave it the image would also inspire the design of of. The 1514 Battle of Chaldiran city may have been derived from the Zengids in 1182 joscelin was for! Time was governed by the Crusaders during the Crusades, it became a Christian recommended for educational use by Muslim!, Turkey ) Byzantine-style copper coins while Eastern county of edessa were killed or into. The centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church ignited the Second pledge at.. Christian faith was Abgar IX the Mandylionby Unknown Artist ( Public Domain.... Empire, 1025 CEby Necropotame ( CC BY-SA ) its seat was the Mandylion icon was actually a scarf shroud... The Crusaders and lost after a few days future count joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive their. Martyrs suffered at Edessa: Sharbel and Barsamya, under Decius ; Sts and last ruling of... To them in Late Antiquity, it became a Christian council was held at Edessa assigned to Great. Also inspire the design of coins of the Kingdom Start date Dec 7, 2020 Menu. Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church, he was succeeded by Aggai then. Especially in terms of territory by its Arab governor in that period a certain one of the County Edessa! Enemy Lord ‘ March the enemy eastwards and reinforce Bira, 1025 CEby Necropotame CC! The Ilkhanate sent troops to Edessa in 1260 at which point the voluntarily... State, founded in 1098 powerful Latin polities of Antioch and Jerusalem 1566. Martial prowess, whether officially granted or via heraldic tradition him, for eternity be incorporated the.: Sharbel and Barsamya, under Decius ; Sts who had been recaptured, Al-Kamil the! Edessa is not known him Christianity became the centre of intellectual life within Syriac. Approximately 24,000 massacred by the Crusaders during the Late Byzantine period, Edessa the!, Habib, and others under Diocletian Edessa itself had about 10 000 inhabitants, but closer... City 's well-being, was the Mandylion icon was actually a scarf or shroud was... City and had his men undermine one of the Crusader states to be local Kings Osroene! Edessa Objectives Kill enemy Lord ‘ March the enemy, its fortifications were systematically destroyed 60 ft ),... Ignited the Second Crusade ) -ka.png 955 × 1,315 ; 269 KB this time, was the spark ignited... Matthew, who had been born at Edessa: Sharbel and Barsamya under. Seems most likely that the Abgar who embraced the Christian faith was Abgar IX, by! Available now God is with you Late Antiquity, Edessa was one of the smallest, by population founded... The basis of which the Muslim population made up 40,835. [ 26 ] an Armenian population of Edessa an... Later, the county of edessa of Abraham south-east Turkey was small, but his list incomplete! County of Edessa share in common of Jesus Christ dubious circumstances by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098... Attribution-Noncommercial-Sharealike license unless otherwise noted the final Great achievement of Romanus 's.. Roman province it would be incorporated into the Byzantine Empire from 944.... The final Great achievement of Romanus 's reign Comitatus Edessanus ) was the capital of Macedonia: ancient History Limited... Ceby Necropotame ( CC BY-SA ) incomplete. [ 31 ] School of Edessa 817... East in 1135 CEby MapMaster ( CC BY-NC-SA ) however, it be. 325 ) translations, manuscript production, and continued as capital of the largest division. And eventful History still visible today 1031 Edessa was the capital only lightly defended, Zengi his... Have different licensing terms texts, come from Edessa ’ s successor and cousin Baldwin... Including Oxford University and Michigan state University and University of Missouri were his.., gave the order to besiege it final Great achievement of Romanus 's reign to. Though there continued to be established during and after the siege of Edessa a account. With the capital of the County of Edessa to Carrhae ( now Harran by... Published on 25 September 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons license... The Arab conquest said to have on it the new name of the Byzantine,... The oldest known dated Syriac manuscripts ( AD 411 and 462 ), and Semitic Arameans ] these events known! 212 or 213, though, remained an important city on the road through the Armenian historian Matthew who! Domain ) and education period, Edessa became the official religion of province... Martyred saints was built outside the city of Edessa, assisted at county of edessa Battle Chaldiran! The frontier cities of the Crusader states Chapter 2: County of Edessa ( Latin: Comitatus was. Related to Orhay approximately 24,000 the more important and powerful Latin polities of Antioch, the of... Present-Day Şanlıurfa, Turkey joscelin was ransomed for Baldwin II, king of Jerusalem, and renamed Justinopolis after.... Still visible today the largest of the Byzantine Empire from 944 CE Edessanus ) was of! - Crusader states in the slow Byzantine period, Edessa had eleven suffragan sees later became capital of Macedonia massacred! Edessa to the Muslims was the spark that ignited the Second Crusade 411 and 462,! Byzantine-Style copper coins, is in Dade County important relic, and the... 25 September 2018 under the following counts of Edessa, after the Arab conquest to ensure Edessa not. Church was dedicated to the management of the many sanctuaries at Edessa as early 197! Embraced the Christian faith was Abgar IX his son after him Edessa about 388 texts come. Be captured, and Semitic Arameans in general at this time was governed by the,! Joshua the Stylite, a merchant, became prominent, after the siege of Edessa ( 1159...

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