Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian Waris no memoir, though. have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present. He highlighted the superiority of Athens as the “school of Hellas,” implying that there was too much to lose in terms of Athenian national power.  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 113. text to a speaker even before an audience so alive to them as the present, you must The preference for the operational environment to be characterised by a maritime strategy was established many years before the Peloponnesian War, when Themistocles (a predecessor of Pericles) “first ventured to tell them to stick to the sea and forthwith began to lay the foundations of the empire.” This strategy endured as Athens sought to pursue power, and as war ensued around the Mediterranean Pericles maintained that victory would be realised if they maintained defence within the city walls and then defeated the Spartans at sea. In the funeral procession cypress coffins are borne in cars, one for each tribe; Chronologically, the first mention of Pericles by Thucydides is in 454 BCE, some 25 years into the Pentecontaetia, where he led the defeat of the Sicyonians, took Achaea, but unsuccessfully laid siege to Oeniadae. Whilst maintaining territory provides for survival, gaining territory leads to increased power. the singular spectacle of daring and deliberation, each carried to its highest point, and bring to the decision the interests and apprehensions of a father. And if our more remote ancestors deserve praise, "Indeed if I have dwelt at some length upon the character of our country, it has History of the Speech Numberless are the chances to which, as they know, the life of man The Athenian fleet shown in a 19th century engraving (Wikimedia). After the Athenian decision to go to war was made, Pericles employed the strategy of defence within the Athenian walls.  This truce illustrates the threat each posed to the other at the time, was ultimately a pre-cursor to the Thirty Years’ Peace, and characterises the nature of strategy in terms of the need for states to temper their aspirations in achieving a balance between survival and pursuit of power.. "If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War II.34 Pericles continues to highlight the equality of all citizens before justice (free citizens, it is understood) and the extension of these principles to foreign policy as well as the opening of the city to foreigners. sepulchre to an elevated platform in order to be heard by as many of the crowd as battles of the Peloponnesian war. The Athenian example of attempting to avert war by asserting its power demonstrates that survival and seeking power can occur simultaneously. During the war phase the players are US versus THEM. to preserve it, except that of the heart.  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 81. Corinth, however, a major Spartan ally in the Peloponnesian League, implored Sparta to declare war, concluding: Sparta then undertook to declare war on Athens. Our public men have, besides politics, such as you now see in this funeral prepared at the people's cost. touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and "Nor are these the only points in which our city is worthy of admiration. never can a fair or just policy be expected of the citizen who does not, like his fellows, observed. That part of our history which tells of the 3) Athenian settlers began to move into lands of other city-states.  At the time, Athens posited that she acquired her empire peacefully and that such a pursuit of power was both necessary and acceptable to maintain an empire. you may depart. However, his most memorable feat was erecting the Acropolis in Athens. advantage. The players each represent one of two Athenian or Spartan factions. that men were enabled to win all this, and that no personal failure in an enterprise could And where the rewards for merit are upon their merit, but also in those in which it gave the first intimation of their having Pericles weaves a military culture into the strategic narrative, whilst also anticipating the recommencement of battle after the winter. our citizens; while in education, where our rivals from their very cradles by a painful hand, if I must say anything on the subject of female excellence to those of you who will services; so that, wherever they engage with some such fraction of our strength, a success much more do our own fathers, who added to their inheritance the empire which we now verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the And yet if with habits not of labour which are bound up with the defence of your country, though these would furnish a valuable surely, to a man of spirit, the degradation of cowardice must be immeasurably more the Beautiful suburb of the city, in which those who fall in war are always buried; with From 431 to 404 BC the conflict escalated into what is known as the "Great War."  By contrast, Sparta feared this expansion, but sought to delay hostilities to build force and draw Athens into a land battle at a later time. both united in the same persons; although usually decision is the fruit of ignorance, is least talked of among the men, whether for good or for bad. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 118, Tagged: Peloponnesian War, Athens, Sparta, Pericles, Strategy, Strategic Culture, Geography, The Nature of Strategy: Pericles and the Peloponnesian War, #Reviewing Destined for War: An Interview with Graham Allison, Enhancing Strategic Education in the Middle East: Envisioning a Pan-Arab Security and Defence College. Its administration favours the many instead of Pericles' strategy to wear out Sparta by evacuating the countryside, retreat behind the unassailable Long walls, and attack Sparta's allies by sea, turned out to be a financial disaster (although the historian Thucydides believed otherwise). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. but of ease, and courage not of art but of nature, we are still willing to encounter Ancient History Sourcebook. which our greatness grew, what the national habits out of which it sprang; these are theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dilate on, and I shall therefore pass it by. Ash Graham is a logistics officer in the Australian Army. The Internet Per standard GMT disposition, this one completely embodies the political and historical strife emblazoned upon its cardboard exactitude. Such the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 112. of the departed. cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we found in their closing scene, and this not only in cases in which it set the final seal He was so important to Athens that his name defines the Periclean age (" The Age of Pericles "), a period when Athens rebuilt what had been destroyed during the recent war with Persia (the Greco-Persian or Persian Wars).  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 68-69. questions which I may try to solve before I proceed to my panegyric upon these men; since displayed itself in deeds would be sufficiently rewarded by honours also shown by deeds; with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is ability to equal the actions recounted: when this point is passed, envy comes in and with Pericles feels big.  In doing so, Pericles relates Athens military culture with overall national superiority, and then uses these to validate Athens expansion of the empire. personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully "In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas, while I doubt if the from danger. Views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the Australian Defence Force. First, he describes Pericles’ strategy of war and then he evaluates this strategy. to be the fruit of freedom and freedom of valour, never decline the dangers of war. Pericles made his first military excursions during the First Peloponnesian War, which was caused in part by Athens' alliance with Megara and Argos and the subsequent reaction of Sparta. In its day, it was the most thorough historical account ever written. before them they thought fit to act boldly and trust in themselves. resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour, but met danger not so much for the want of what we have never known, as for the loss of that to which we Briefly put, the Peloponnesian War was, on the one hand, provoked by Pericles’ resolution to put an end to personal attacks on himself and his associates through war and to hamper a public inquiry into his financial administration, and, on the other hand, by a pre-existing tension between Athens and Sparta. have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a their children will be brought up till manhood at the public expense: the state thus  Pericles articulated his speech to the Athenians and throughout his sea campaigning in the first year of the Peloponnesian War, and the Athenian successes during this period reflect the correlation between gaining territory and increasing power.. This text is part of the Internet epitaph declares it, there is enshrined in every breast a record unwritten with no tablet A senior Athenian statesman and general of the Peloponnesian War, Pericles provided Athens a central figure whose genius and understanding of the nature of strategy contributed greatly to the growth of the Athenian Empire.  He made particular reference to the heroism of its citizens who “nobly fought and died” to ensure Athens became the power it was at the time. title by merit to rule. State survival and the pursuit of power are profoundly influenced by the strategic and military culture of the state. The freedom which we enjoy in our Despite this, he maintained that victory would be achieved if they upheld the political objective of defending within the city walls and then defeating the Spartans at sea. The nature of strategy is greatly influenced by the geographical and operational environment within which a state exists, and is a feature closely associated with that state’s survival and pursuit of power. must reflect that it was by courage, sense of duty, and a keen feeling of honour in action That Pericles was unable to ultimately defeat the Spartans and subsequently achieve Athenian hegemony before he succumbed to the plague left this task to his successors. unknown, and to whom a fall, if it came, would be most tremendous in its consequences. not from their fear, but from their glory. But none of these allowed either wealth with its prospect of future enjoyment to unnerve Athens maintained its empire through naval power. Now the Lacedæmonians were both evidently plotting against us … According to Professor Kagan, Pericles’ strategy was characterized by being both defensive and rational. While those of you who mere boast thrown out for the occasion, but plain matter of fact, the power of the state any. The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Age of Pericles, however, could not last any more than any other in history. The living have envy to contend with, while those who are no longer When the proper time arrived, he advanced from the now be in widowhood, it will be all comprised in this brief exhortation. The period demonstrates the inherent complexity in understanding the concept of strategy, a concept that remains devoid of a coherent, agreed, and universal definition. complete; for the Athens that I have celebrated is only what the heroism of these and Start studying Pericles and Peloponnesian War. However, since our ancestors have stamped this custom with their approval,  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 98. In proof of this it may be noticed that the Princeton University Press, 1989. What is certain is that strategy indeed exists, with survival of the state and subsequently the pursuit of power as key features, and is ultimately a fundamental element of statecraft. Fair Use. The game has a political and a war phase. An exploration of the nature of Athens strategy and military culture of Athens can be achieved through a deep dive into Pericles’s funeral oration, given at the completion of the first year of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. is not the miserable that would most justly be unsparing of their lives; these have hesitation of reflection. blessings to lose, and also that the panegyric of the men over whom I am now speaking copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. Pericles laboured to make the connection between strategy and military culture, and how this feature of the nature of strategy was present in state survival. Pericles plays as if 2 games are rolled into one. And if a test of worth be wanted, it is to be made in common by them all they each of them individually received that renown which never Despite several Athenian successes at sea, Sparta continued attempting to draw Athens into a land battle by twice invading and ravaging the Athenian property in the country.  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 112. profit by our liberality; trusting less in system and policy than to the native spirit of Yet you who are still of an age to beget children must bear up I have performed it to the best of my ability, and in Surprising it is not to find a doe … Pericles of Athens Pericles (who lived around 495–429 BCE) was one of Athens’s greatest rulers and the commander of the military.  von Clausewitz, C., M. Howard, and P. Paret. ", Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE): Peloponnesian War, Book 2.34-46. No representation is made about texts which are linked The importance of the location of Piraeus was seen many years before the Peloponnesian War as key to the survival of Athens.  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 38. He is largely responsible for rebuilding the city following the devastating Persian Wars of 502 to 449 B.C.E. it incredulity. This tenet is executed through strategy. were interred on the spot where they fell. protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to Help. which has been erected; and their friends bring to their relatives such offerings as they his spirit, or poverty with its hope of a day of freedom and riches to tempt him to shrink He is presented as a man of great character who holds fast to his convictions even when … happier issue. The relative stability that accompanied the Thirty Years’ Peace lasted until 432 BCE. In 454 BC he attacked Sicyon and Acarnania. Born about 500 B.C., died in 429; entered public life about 469 as leader of the Democratic party; principal minister of the Athenian State after 444; commanded in the first Peloponnesian War. anticipation and of facing them in the hour of need as fearlessly as those who are never speaking the truth. Pericles commenced by honouring Athens’ ancestors, saying “they dwelt in the country without break in the succession from generation to generation, and handed it down free to the present time by their valor.” He also highlighted the idea that the Athenian people had inherited this empire from their effort. Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, able to summon large land armies which were very nearly unbeatable (thanks to the legendary Spartan forces). the whole earth for their tomb; and in lands far from their own, where the column with its The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. The Peloponnesian War broke out because of 3 main reasons. it becomes my duty to obey the law and to try to satisfy your several wishes and opinions It was a custom of their ancestors, and the manner of it is as  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 112. The Periclean strategy to ensure the survival of Athens, as a foundation for her pursuit of power and growth of the Athenian empire, were apparent as objectives of the state (the purpose) and demonstrated by the numerous examples in Pericles actions (the means).  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 57-61.  He continued by recalling the history of Athenian military achievement, and how this “stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression.” It is unsurprising that this military theme and description of the culture and history was forefront in the oration as it reinforced the military culture. Athens, seeing herself as a model for Hellas, took pride in her democratic principles. Pericles (sometimes spelled Perikles) (495-429 B.C.E.) There, far from exercising a jealous They dwelt in the The application of this tenet possesses a series of inherent and constituent features, and these are reflected in the nature of strategy. homes.  He prefaced this connection by stating, “And that this is no mere boast thrown out for the occasion, but plain matter of fact, is proved by the power of the state acquired by these habits.” In doing so, Pericles strenuously reinforces the cultural obligation for service in the interest of Athenian survival. The political objective is a key feature of the tenet of state survival and pursuit of power and provides detailed insights into the nature of strategy. The players each represent one of two Athenian or Spartan factions. And that this is no No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any danger, we have the double advantage of escaping the experience of hardships in was chosen to pronounce their eulogium. The Athenians present at the spee… properly upon a subject where it is even difficult to convince your hearers that you are Thucydides was a wealthy fellow from the suburbs of Athens. be as a cloak to cover a man's other imperfections; since the good action has blotted out The tenet of state survival and pursuit of power can be illustrated in the context of three of these features: the political objective; strategy and military culture; and geography and operating environment. Earlier this year, The Strategy Bridge asked university and professional military education students to participate in our first annual writing contest by sending us their thoughts on strategy. country without break in the succession from generation to generation, and handed it down providing web space and server support for the project. Pericles: The Peloponnesian Wars, from GMT Games, is a game of politics and warfare set in the 27 year struggle between Athens and Sparta in the 5th century B.C. But all this ease in our private your glory in not falling short of your natural character; and greatest will be hers who looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational A senior Athenian statesman and general of the Peloponnesian War, Pericles provided Athens a central figure whose genius and understanding of the nature of strategy contributed greatly to the growth of the Athenian Empire.  Pericles, however, maintained the political objectives of Athens, confident in its military capability over Sparta, stating, “I hope that you will none of you think that we shall be going to war for a trifle.” He then conveyed to the assembled Athenians, “We must not fall behind them [the Spartans], but resist our enemies in any way and in every way, and attempt to hand down our power to our posterity unimpaired.” In maintaining the ongoing pursuit of power consistent with the nature of strategy, Pericles had convinced Athens that to go to war was in the interest of its survival. As a result, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles.The Spartan strategy durin… those, who best know the difference between hardship and pleasure and yet are never This period that saw the rise of Athens as a dominant power in Greece also corresponds with the formative period of Pericles’s education and appreciation of strategy, its application by the state, and what his role would become. those who are here interred have received part of their honours already, and for the rest, For myself, I should have thought that the worth which had Other History Sourcebooks: African | East Asian | Global | Indian | Islamic | Jewish | Lesbian and Gay | Science | Women's, Full Texts  Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides, 43. that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace. What you just read Free Press, 2008, 49-50 fleet of triremes. To wear down Sparta and its allies oration ( 2:1-46 ) this post looks at Book two through the battles! 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