There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. Science & technology Jun 2nd 2011 edition. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. Free Shipping by Amazon ... From The Fall of Constantinople to the Thirty Years War. , In 1580, Philip II of Spain became ruler of the Portuguese Empire, and the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War began as an offshoot of the Dutch fight for independence from Spain. Poland, having been drawn in as a Baltic power coveted by Sweden, pushed its own ambitions by attacking Russia and establishing a dictatorship in Moscow under Władysław, Poland’s future king. 1-16 of 686 results for "30 years war" Skip to main search results Amazon Prime. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. History of Europe - History of Europe - The Thirty Years’ War: The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire. Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since 1555. 4.6 out of 5 stars 29. , At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. , Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. Votes: 390 Effects From South Ossetia War Linger 30 Years Later ... most notably in 2008 when a Georgian attempt to retake the region sparked an all-out war …  In these battles, Gustavus used, among other things, the well-trained Finnish light cavalrymen Hakkapeliitta, which were excelled in sudden and savage attacks, raiding and reconnaissance. Jun 2nd 2011. , Bautzen is besieged by Saxon troops, 1620 by Matthäus Merian, Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder,April 1631, Death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lützen,6 November 1632, The capture of Rheinfelden by the troops of the Duke of Feria,1633, Unsuccessful Swedish-Transylvanian siege of Brno, 1645, 1618–1648 multi-state war in Central Europe, Phase II; France joins the war 1635 to 1648. Thirty Years War While England was in the midst of fighting its own Civil War, most of mainland Europe was fighting out the final rounds of a longer, more widespread and bloody conflict.  In 1640, the French captured Arras, and over-ran the rest of Artois, while protests against heavy taxes led to revolts in Portugal and Catalonia. The Thirty Years War ravaged whole countries, as the first truly national armies marched over Europe.  Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map).  The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. Thirty Years' War is a game designed by HQ and it covers one of the darkest ages of European history. , One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. For some time, Holy Roman armies, aided by catholic princes, succeded in holding their own against the Swedes and German Protestants. Christian’s defeat and the Peace of Lübeck in 1629 finished Denmark as a European power, but Sweden’s Gustav II Adolf, having ended a four-year war with Poland, invaded Germany and won many German princes to his anti-Roman Catholic, anti-imperial cause.  With French resources tied up in Italy, he helped negotiate the September 1629 Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Poland, freeing Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war. , Ferdinand II died in February 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who faced a rapidly deteriorating military situation. More common were disputes such as the 1606 'battle of the flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. 30 years war synonyms, 30 years war pronunciation, 30 years war translation, English dictionary definition of 30 years war. 1618-1648 - what a pleasing timeframe! Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. By 1623, Spanish-Imperial forces controlled the Palatinate. • La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo (Antwerp, 1646): The last of the great Spanish Golden Age picaresque novels, this is set against the background of the Thirty Years' War. While this gave them seats in the Imperial Diet, it also brought them conflict with both Brandenburg-Prussia and Saxony, who were competitors in Pomerania. By weakening the Habsburgs while increasing the status of France and Sweden, it led to a new balance of power on the continent. The war grew ever more muddled with the Dutch-Spanish war folded in as well. , As a result, although Frederick accepted the crown and entered Prague in October 1619, his support gradually eroded over the next few months. The Peace consisted of three separate agreements; the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, the treaty of Osnabrück between the Empire and Sweden, plus the treaty of Münster between the Empire and France.  A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". Define 30 years war. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. The Thirty years' War in the Movies by Burgwaechterchen | created - 27 Nov 2010 | updated - 17 Apr 2017 | Public No Ranking,just listing..If the film is not directly connected to the 30 year's war,I at least try to concentrate on the times of the early 17th century. Possession of these territories ensured Danish control of the Elbe and Weser rivers. However, it was a compromise that failed to resolve underlying religious and political tensions within the Holy Roman Empire.  In 1621, Hamburg accepted Danish 'supervision', while his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen and Verden. , Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. , Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. Many Spanish officials felt it was time to accept Dutch independence, but despite these challenges, their Empire remained a formidable power. In 1556, Habsburg Spain became a separate entity, while retaining Imperial states such as the Duchy of Milan, and interests in Bohemia and Hungary; the two often co-operated, but their objectives did not always align. , In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. , With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. The series of protracted religious-dynastic wars that afflicted the Holy Roman Empire and most western European states from 1618 to 1648. Karel Zeman's brilliant animation, cowritten with Jurácek: ironic, surreal, following the adventures of a plowboy and a mercenary to the battlefields of the Thirty Years War. Omissions? Even after union, the Portuguese dominated the Atlantic trade in Triangular trade, exporting slaves from West Africa and Angola to work sugar plantations in Brazil. The armies of both sides plundered as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms ravaged. Meanwhile, Royalists and Pariamentarians fought for control of the nation in the English Civil War. Unlike French gains which were incorporated into France, Swedish territories remained part of the Empire, and they became members of the Lower and Upper Saxon kreis. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. It was started in 1618 by Ferdinand II, whose rise to the monarchy was marked by great dubiety on … The Thirty Years' War represented a major step backward in military tactics and professionalism, although this cou… After tense negotiations with Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, in the April 1635 Treaty of Compiègne Richelieu agreed to provide additional subsidies, and declared war on Spain in May, beginning the 1635 to 1659 Franco-Spanish War. Frederick and the remnants of Mansfeld's army took refuge in the Dutch Republic. Thirty years' war definition, the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618–48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. The situation was complicated by Savoy, which saw an opportunity to gain territory; in March 1629, the French stormed Savoyard positions in the Pas de Suse, lifted the siege of Casale and captured the strategic fortress of Pinerolo. In this strategy game, players will take control of one of the opposing sides, Protestants or Catholics, and fight for the control of the Empire. The defection of their German allies led France to join the war directly, which continued until Westphalia in 1648. This severed the Spanish Road, forcing Spain to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea, an area dominated by the Dutch navy. , French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. The process, or 'Congress' model, was adopted for negotiations at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668, Nijmegen in 1678, and Ryswick in 1697; unlike the 19th century 'Congress' system, these were to end wars, rather than prevent them, so references to the 'balance of power' can be misleading. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War teaches us how protracted conflict can bring about famine and spell disaster for … The chief agents of the Counter-Reformation were similarly split, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, the Capuchins France. This resulted in a Gordian tangle of alliances as princes and prelates called in foreign powers to aid them. The Thirty Years' War lasted from 1618 to 1648 in Europe, and was one of the most destructive wars in European history, claiming around eight million lives in total.In some places half the pre-war population died and the war thoroughly influenced the Baroque Era which had prevalent themes of "vanitas" or the ultimate death and decay of all earthly things. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. Possession of these fortresses gave France effective control of Piedmont, protected the Alpine passes into Southern France, and allowed them to threaten Milan at will. , Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. With Saxony occupied by Sweden, Ferdinand III accepted the need to include them in peace negotiations. Under the December 1625 Treaty of The Hague, the Dutch and English now agreed to finance Danish intervention in the Empire. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. The ancient notion of a Roman Catholic empire of Europe, headed spiritually by a pope and temporally by an emperor, was permanently abandoned, and the essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. See more.  Focused on retaking the Netherlands, the Spanish Habsburgs preferred to avoid antagonising Protestants elsewhere, and recognised the dangers associated with Ferdinand's fervent Catholicism, but accepted the lack of alternatives. Twentieth-century wars such as World Wars I and II, by contrast, were fought overseas; few Americans on the homefront saw any type of direct engagement during these. It's angry, loud, fast hardcore music made by guys who like to ride skateboards and drink Milwaukee's Best. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. , France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November. So it's quite aptly named.  Although suggested towns over-stated losses to avoid taxes, individual records show serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. This Thirty Years War series was released from August 2013 to June 2014. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. , In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Stralsund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. , Richelieu died in 1642, and was replaced as chief minister by Cardinal Mazarin, followed on 14 May 1643 by the death of Louis XIII, leaving his five-year-old son Louis XIV as heir. Regardless of religion, most German princes refused to support him, and by early 1620, the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. , Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire.…, The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. Battles of the Thirty Years War: From White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635 (Contributions in Military Studies) by William P. Guthrie | Oct 30, 2001 4.2 out of 5 stars 8 , The Peace of Münster was the first to be signed on 30 January 1648; it was part of Westphalia because the provinces that made up the Dutch Republic were still technically part of the Spanish Netherlands and thus Imperial territories.  Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement, helped by the outbreak of hostilities with Poland in 1620, followed by the 1623 to 1639 war with Persia. , As Duke of Holstein, Christian IV was also a member of the Lower Saxon circle, while Denmark's economy relied on the Baltic trade and tolls from traffic through the Øresund. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights.  Many Protestants supported Ferdinand because they objected to deposing the legally elected king of Bohemia, and now opposed Frederick's removal on the same grounds. The strategic importance of the Duchy of Mantua meant when the direct male line became extinct in December 1627, both powers became involved in the 1628 to 1631 War of the Mantuan Succession. The war originated in differences between German Protestants and Catholics, which were temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg but was gradually undermined by political and religious tensions. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. This second phase ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. , The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. While it is not a comprehensive list of all skirmishes, conflicts, or battles that took place in the Thirty Years' War, we have tried to include as many military events and actions as possible. The Thirty Years War is the series of conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire and its surroundings, between 1618 and 1648. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. Based on analysis of contemporary reports, less than 3% of civilian deaths were the result of military action; the major causes were starvation (12%), bubonic plague (64%), typhus (4%), and dysentery (5%). Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. , During the winter of 1647, Mazarin suggested the Spanish exchange Catalonia, then occupied by France, for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by what they viewed as betrayal, in January 1648 the Dutch signed the Peace of Münster, ending their war with Spain.  Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. , In 1643, Frederick III of Denmark re-entered the conflict as an Imperial ally, threatening the Swedes with a war on two fronts. In 1938, C. V. Wedgwood argued it formed part of a wider European conflict, whose underlying cause was the ongoing contest between Austro-Spanish Habsburgs and French Bourbons. It is suggested the high mortality rate compared to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Britain was partly due to the reliance of all sides on foreign mercenaries, often unpaid and required to live off the land. Outcome of Thirty Years War The result of the thirty year war was that the German princes could choose their own religion, as long as it was one of the big three . In return, they dissolved the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues. This year marks the centenary of the end of the First World War, but that’s not the only major commemoration on our current calendars. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be changed, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. A brief treatment of the Thirty Years’ War follows. A parallel struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances. In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden. , Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere. Occasionally it meant full-scale conflict, such as the 1583 to 1588 Cologne War, caused by the conversion to Calvinism of the Prince Elector, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. From 1618 to 1648 a series of conflicts engulfed much of Europe. The 30 Years War The 30 Years War was a political and religious war that lasted from 1618-1648. Until the mid-20th century, it was seen as predominantly a German civil war or was considered one of the European wars of religion. The heavy reliance on mercenary forces also had a detrimental effect on the quality of soldiers in general, as mercenary captains would fill out their rosters by levying troops from the civilian population. Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish troops under Alexander Leslie to Stralsund, who was appointed governor. "Thirty Years War" recreates this conflict with the award winning wargame system used in GMT's Wilderness War, Paths of Glory, and For the People. , Made over-confident by success, in March 1629 Ferdinand passed an Edict of Restitution, which required all lands taken from the Catholic church after 1555 to be returned. This threatened other Protestant rulers within the Empire, including Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein.  They originated in the Bishopric of Würzburg, an area with a history of such events going back to 1616 and now re-ignited by Bishop von Ehrenberg, a devout Catholic eager to assert the church's authority in his territories. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=1000515084, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Confirmation of Dutch independence and Swedish control of the Baltic, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. The Consequences of War (also known as The Horror of War) by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), oil on canvas, c.1637/8. Leopold suffered 20,000 casualties, including 5,000 prisoners and 46 guns, compared to Swedish losses of 4,000 killed or wounded. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their consciences, and compel their subjects to follow that faith (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). , In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; his membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. , The modern consensus is the population of the Holy Roman Empire declined from 18 to 20 million in 1600 to 11–13 million in 1650, and did not reach pre-war levels until 1750. Two Roman Catholic armies, the emperor’s and the League’s, converged on the kingdom, routing Frederick at the White Mountain in November 1620 and replacing the regime of the estates in Bohemia…, In 1620, following the defeat of Frederick V (the elector palatine, or prince, from the Rhineland who had accepted the crown of Bohemia when it was offered to him in 1618) and the Bohemians, Spanish troops from the Netherlands entered the “Winter…. IT WAS not quite a … AIDS The 30 years war. The Thirty Years' War was one of the bloodiest events in European history — deadlier than the Black Death and World War II, in terms of the proportion of the population lost. , The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain.  The Smolensk War is considered a separate but related part of the Thirty Years' War. "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". They included separation of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, expansion of the French frontier into the Empire, and an end to Spanish military supremacy in Northern Europe. , Three days later, a combined French-Catalan force defeated the Spanish at Montjuïc, a victory which secured Barcelona. The Thirty Years War was largely the war of the Counter-Reformation. Fighting did not end immediately, since demobilising over 200,000 soldiers was a complex business, and the last Swedish garrison did not leave Germany until 1654. , On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's 1617 election as king, and on 26th, formally offered the crown to Frederick instead; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg.  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